Securing Cisco Networking Devices
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A malicious program is disguised as another
useful program; consequently, when the user executes
the program, files get erased and then the malicious
program spreads itself using emails as the delivery
mechanism. Which type of attack best describes how
this scenario got started?
D. trojan horse
Denial of Service (DoS) is an attack designed to render
a computer or network incapable of providing normal
services. The most common DoS attacks will target
the computer's network bandwidth or connectivity.
Bandwidth attacks flood the network with such a high
volume of traffic, that all available network resources
are consumed and legitimate user requests cannot get
through. Connectivity attacks flood a computer with
such a high volume of connection requests, that all
available operating system resources are consumed
and the computer can no longer process legitimate
A "denial-of-service" attack is characterized
by an explicit attempt by attackers to prevent legitimate
users of a service from using that service. Examples
* attempts to "flood" a network, thereby
preventing legitimate network traffic
* attempts to disrupt connections between two machines,
thereby preventing access to a service
* attempts to prevent a particular individual from
accessing a service
* attempts to disrupt service to a specific system
Distributed Denial of Service
* An attacker launches the attack using several machines.
In this case, an attacker breaks into several machines,
or coordinates with several zombies to launch an attack
against a target or network at the same time.
* This makes it difficult to detect because attacks
originate from several IP addresses.
* If a single IP address is attacking a company, it
can block that address at its firewall. If it is 300
00 this is extremely difficult.
What is the key function of a comprehensive
A. informing staff of their obligatory requirements
for protecting technology and information assets
B. detailing the way security needs will be met at
corporate and department levels
C. recommending that Cisco IPS sensors be implemented
at the network edge
D. detailing how to block malicious network attacks
Developing a strong security policy helps to protect
your resources only if all staff members are properly
instructed on all facets and processes of the policy.
Most companies have a system in place whereby all
employees need to sign a statement confirming that
they have read and understood the security policy.
The policy should cover all issues the employees encounter
in their day-to-day work, such as laptop security,
password policy, handling of sensitive information,
access levels, tailgating, countermeasures, photo
IDs, PIN codes, and security information delivered
via newsletters and posters. A top-down approach is
required if the policy is to be taken seriously. This
means that the security policy should be issued and
supported from an executive level downward.
Which building blocks make up the Adaptive
Threat Defense phase of Cisco SDN strategy?
A. VoIP services, NAC services, Cisco IBNS
B. network foundation protection, NIDS services, adaptive
threat mitigation services
C. firewall services, intrusion prevention, secure
D. firewall services, IPS and network antivirus services,
E. Anti-X defense, NAC services, network foundation
Computer connected to the Internet without a firewall
can be hijacked and added to an Internet outlaw's
botnet in just a few minutes. A firewall can block
malware that could otherwise scan your computer for
vulnerabilities and then try to break in at a weak
The real issue is how to make one 99.9% secure when
it is connected to in Internet. At a minimum computers
need to have firewall, antivirus and anti-spyware
software installed and kept up-to-date. A home network
that uses a wired or wireless router with firewall
features provides additional protection.
A computer virus can be best described as a small
program or piece of code that penetrates into the
operating system, causing unexpected and negative
events to occur. A well-known example is a virus,
SoBig. Computer viruses reside in the active memory
of the host and try to duplicate themselves by different
means. This duplication mechanism can vary from copying
files and broadcasting data on local-area network
(LAN) segments to sending copies via e-mail or an
Internet relay chat (IRC). Antivirus software applications
are developed to scan the memory and hard disks of
hosts for known viruses.
If the application finds a virus (using a reference
database with virus definitions), it informs the user.
Which of these two ways does Cisco recommend
that you use to mitigate maintenance-related threats?
A. Maintain a stock of critical spares for emergency
B. Ensure that all cabling is Category 6.
C. Always follow electrostatic discharge procedures
when replacing or working with internal router and
switch device components.
D. Always wear an electrostatic wrist band when handling
cabling, including fiber-optic cabling.
E. Always employ certified maintenance technicians
to maintain mission-critical equipment and cabling.
What are two security risks on 802.11 WLANs
that implement WEP using a static 40-bit key with
open authentication? (Choose two.)
A. The IV is transmitted as plaintext, and an attacker
can sniff the WLAN to see the IV.
B. The challenge packet sent by the wireless AP is
C. The response packet sent by the wireless client
is sent unencrypted.
D. WEP uses a weak-block cipher such as the Data Encryption
E. One-way authentication only where the wireless
client does not authenticate the wireless-access point.
Which method of mitigating packet-sniffer
attacks is the most effective?
A. implement two-factor authentication
B. deploy a switched Ethernet network infrastructure
C. use software and hardware to detect the use of
D. deploy network-level cryptography using IPsec,
secure services, and secure protocols
You cannot talk about VPNs without saying something
about IP Security (IPSec). IPSec is a framework of
open standards. It is not bound to any specific encryption
or authentication algorithm keying technology. IPSec
acts on the network layer, where it protects and authenticates
IP packets between participating peers such as firewalls,
routers, or concentrators. IPSec security provides
four major functions:
* Confidentiality The sender can encrypt the packets
before transmitting them across the network. If such
a communication is intercepted, it cannot be read
* Data integrity The receiver can verify whether the
data was changed while traveling the Internet.
* Origin authenticationThe receiver can authenticate
the source of the packet.
* Antireplayprotection The receiver can verify that
each packet is unique and is not duplicated.
What is a reconnaissance attack?
A. when an intruder attacks networks or systems to
retrieve data, gain access, or escalate access privileges.
B. when an intruder attempts to discover and map systems,
services, and vulnerabilities
C. when malicious software is inserted onto a host
in order to damage a system, corrupt a system, replicate
itself, or deny service or access to networks, systems,
D. when an intruder attacks your network in a way
that damages or corrupts your computer system, or
denies you and other access to your networks, systems,
E. when an intruder attempts to learn user IDs and
passwords that can later be used in identity theft
Reconnaissance refers to the preparatory phase where
an attacker seeks to gather as much information as
possible about a target of attack prior to launching
an attack. This phase is also where the attacker draws
on competitive intelligence to learn more about the
The phase may also involve network scanning either
external or internal without authorization.
This is a phase that allows the potential attacker
to strategize his attack. This may spread over time,
as the attacker waits to unearth crucial information.
One aspect that gains prominence here is social engineering.
A social engineer is a person who usually smooths
talk's people into revealing information such as unlisted
phone numbers, passwords or even sensitive information.
Other reconnaissance techniques include dumpster diving.
Dumpster diving is the process of looking through
an organization's trash for discarded sensitive information.
Building user awareness of the precautions they must
take in order to protect their information assets
is a critical factor in this context.